Solar FM Radio Portable Camping Solar LED Lantern With FM Radio And Electric Charger

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Solar FM Radio Portable Camping Solar LED Lantern With FM Radio And Electric Charger

  • Solar FM Radio Portable Camping Solar LED Lantern With FM Radio And Electric Charger FM Radio With LED Camping Solar Lantern With High power LED’s
  • Electric Charger
  • Carrying handle with streamlined design Speaker: 8 ohm Power output:50Mw
  • Can be used with 3.5mm stereo earphones Easy for handheld
  • Incase of Further information or doubt please mail at belifalmail@gmail.com or call on our helpline number 8080515555/09821072175.
 Solar FM Radio Portable Camping Solar LED Lantern With FM Radio And Electric Charger India

Product Description

Features: FM Radio With LED Camping Solar Lantern Electronic tuning auto scan FM Receiving wireless reception (88~108MHz) High power LED’s Carrying handle with streamlined design Speaker: 8 ohm Power output:50Mw Can be used with 3.5mm stereo earphones Easy for handheld S/N:50Db 1.5W Solar Panel Electric Charger 2000MAh Power Bank

Product Information

Technical Details
Brand Belifal
Model bel173
Item model number bel173
Batteries Included No

Solar Tubelights And Solar Mobile Charging Station In Action At D.G. Ruparel College,Matunga

Solar Mobile Charging Station In Action At D.G. Ruparel College, Mumbai

The Solar Mobile Charging Station is an innovative solution for faculty members facing dilemma of mobile phone battery going dead in the college. Charges Mobile Power bank. Charges Mobile Phone. Charges Tablet. Charges almost all electronic devices. Charge 2 smart phones and 4 Non smart phones at a time.

The faculty of D.G. Ruparel College were happy to know the solution to their Mobile Phone batteries going dead was brought to use by Belifal. We support Prime Ministers ” Make In India ” and by manufacturing this innovative product in India, we are happy to support this movement.

Using this eco-friendly Solar Mobile Charger, enlightens the teaching staff the advantages of solar energy and importance of clean energy solutions that are possible by using solar panels and latest technologies. The purpose of the station, beyond providing free power for recharging, is to raise awareness of renewable energy and energy efficiency by serving as an educational tool.

SOLAR TUBELIGHT

Solar Panel : 1.40A 12.65V 17.7W

Battery : 75Ah Exide 12V

Load : 3.0A 32.0W

IMG_1614 IMG_1609 IMG_1602

IMG_1603 IMG_1613 IMG_1611

The D.G. Ruparel College has installed Solar tubelights in staff room.

Solar Tubelights At D.G. Ruparel College,Matunga

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Belifal Innovates Solar FM Radio

Solar FM Radio Portable Camping Solar LED Lantern With FM Radio, Power Bank And Electric Charger

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Solar FM Radio Portable Camping Solar LED Lantern With FM Radio, Power Bank And Electric Charger

Features: FM Radio With LED Camping Solar Lantern Electronic tuning auto scan FM Receiving wireless reception (88~108MHz) High power LED’s Carrying handle with streamlined design Speaker: 8 ohm Power output:50Mw Can be used with 3.5mm stereo earphones Easy for handheld S/N:50Db 1.5W Solar Panel Electric Charger 2000MAh Power Bank.

 

  • Solar FM Radio Portable Camping Solar LED Lantern With FM Radio, Power Bank And Electric ChargerFM Radio With LED Camping Solar Lantern With High power LED’s
  • Electric Charger And 2000MAh Power Bank
  • Carrying handle with streamlined design Speaker: 8 ohm Power output:50Mw
  • Can be used with 3.5mm stereo earphones Easy for handheld

 

Solar Energy Basics

Solar Energy Basics

Solar is the Latin word for sun—a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes and businesses. That’s because more energy from the sun falls on the earth in one hour than is used by everyone in the world in one year. A variety of technologies convert sunlight to usable energy for buildings. The most commonly used solar technologies for homes and businesses are solar water heating, passive solar design for space heating and cooling, and solar photovoltaics for electricity.

Photo of a solar electric system in Colorado with snow-covered mountain peaks in the background.

Solar panels installed on a home in Colorado.

Businesses and industry also use these technologies to diversify their energy sources, improve efficiency, and save money. Solar photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies are also being used by developers and utilities to produce electricity on a massive scale to power cities and small towns. Learn more about the following solar technologies:

Solar Photovoltaic Technology

These technologies convert sunlight directly into electricity to power homes and businesses.

Concentrating Solar Power

These technologies harness heat from the sun to provide electricity for large power stations.

Solar Process Heat

These technologies use solar energy to heat or cool commercial and industrial buildings.

Passive Solar Technology

From the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: these technologies harness heat from the sun to warm our homes and businesses in winter.

Solar Water Heating

From the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: these technologies harness heat from the sun to provide hot water for homes and businesses.

Additional Resources

For more information about solar energy, visit the following resources:

Solar Energy Technology Basics
U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

Solar Energy Conversion Data
U.S. Energy Information Administration.

Sunshot Initiative
U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon

Photovoltaic Technology Basics
U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

Concentrating Solar Power
U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

Energy Kids Solar Basics
U.S. Energy Information Administration Energy Kids

Clean Energy Education and Professional Development
U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

Source

Grid – Connected Solar PV System

Grid Connected
  • Electrical India
  • Aug 5, 2015

Grid – Connected Solar PV System

The trend of reducing cost of PV modules and the good support of government in enhancing the technology have increased the use of PV and solar thermal energy as important factors in the present and future renewable energy’s growth scenario…

– Krishna Prabhakar Lall, Dr. Sarat Kumar Sahoo,

Dr. S Prabhakar Karthikeyan


Grid-interconnected Photovoltaic (PV) source is one of the fastest developing and most prominent renewable energy sources in the globe. The main reason behind this is the remarkable progress in the semiconductor manufacturing domain. Also, the reduction in price of PV modules helps in the starting of economic incentives or subsidies. Although, the core of a PV system is the PV cell (or PV generator), power electronics sector plays a major role as a cutting edge technology for an efficient photo voltaic system control, hence transferring the generated power to the grid supply.

The functions of the power converter of a PV system consists of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), DC/AC power converter, grid synchronisation, power quality, active and reactive power control – and anti-islanding detection power converter interface of grid-connected PV system. The system has a PV generation set-up, which can be a single module, a string of series-connected modules, or an array of parallely connected strings. PV inverters nowadays have high demand, which are manufactured in different topologies. The configuration of series/parallel connections of PV modules with 3-Ø central string inverter is common for PV plants (10 to 250 kW & more) that gives high efficiency.

The PV set-up has a passive input capacitive filter, which decouples the input voltage and current from the subsequent power stages by reducing current and voltage ripples at the PV cell side. The input capacitive filter circuit after filtering the ripples comes to DC/DC boost converter, where MPPT techniques of PV system are performed. Moreover, galvanic isolation are also introduced (when DC/DC converters with High Frequency (HF) transformers are employed). The DC/DC chopper block is connected through a DC link to a grid-tied DC/AC central inverter, commonly known as PV inverter. In PV systems – where no DC/DC converter is used, the input filter is equivalent to the DC-link capacitor. The PV inverter is connected to grid source through output filter, usually a combination of inductors (L) and capacitors (C). The AC side filter enables harmonic mitigation – and helps the converter–grid interface control. Depending on the PV system requirements and the grid connection, a Low Frequency (LF) transformer is used to increase the voltage and give isolation to the circuit.

Current market scenario

The trend of reducing cost of PV modules and the good support of government in enhancing the technology have increased the use of PV and solar thermal energy as important factors in the present and future renewable energy’s growth scenario, a generalised block diagram of grid-connected photo voltaic system is shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1: Generalized Block Diagram of Grid-Connected PV System…

  • These installations are based on housing applications, where power requirement is (<5kW). Also, larger PV power plants are rapidly going in construction to achieve a nominal power level up to 250 MW.
  • Currently, the main installed PV set-ups are grid-connected with the off-grid sector accounting for an estimated 2% of global capacity. The output of PV panels is a DC voltage, and photo voltaic central string inverter gives an AC output voltage.
  • PV set-ups, where each photo voltaic panel has its own module inverter, are commonly used for low-power applications – where power levels are below 500 W.

The closed loop feedback topology for the control system consists of several current and voltage transducers at the photo voltaic input side (for MPPT), DC-link (voltage control) and grid side (for grid synchronisation and active/reactive power control). Grid-connected PV energy conversion can be submerged into four different types of configurations: centralised configuration for large-scale PV plants (3-Ø), string configuration for small/medium scale photo voltaic plants (1-Ø and 3-Ø), multi-string configuration for small to large-scale plants (1-Ø and 3-Ø) and AC-module configuration.

Grid connected systems

In grid-connected applications, the power is supplied directly to the grid – and the important blocks are photo voltaic modules and inverters. This decreases the overall price of the plant and also reduces the necessary maintenance required, as the batteries are the most maintenance-demanding parts.

The PV inverters for grid connection can be of different topology and operation than off-grid ones. They have to produce excellent quality sine wave outputs with low ripples i.e., less THD, which has to match the frequency and voltage of the grid for synchronisation – and extract maximum power from the PV modules through the MPPT algorithm. The inverter input finds from I–V curve of the photo voltaic string cell until the maximum power point is achieved.

  • The PV grid inverter always controls the grid & output voltage and frequency. The most effective modulation technique is the Pulse Width Modulation, which can function at frequency ranging from 2 to 20 KHz.
  • Grid connected inverters are classified as Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs) and Current Source Inverters (CSIs). However, in PV applications, VSI inverters are used. The complete diagram of PV panels & VSI with grid integration is provided in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2: Grid Connected Solar PV Fed VSI…

The up gradation and fast development in power electronics technology has led to manufacturing of solar photo voltaic inverters with different modern control topologies, which not only are efficient but also synchronises the grid. Central inverters in past days are used for most PV applications. The PV modules were divided into series connections (called strings), each generating a sufficiently high voltage to avoid further amplification. Then all the strings were connected in parallel through string diodes in order to reach high power levels. The use of central inverter has many drawbacks – such as MPPT power losses, losses from differentiations between the modules and high voltage DC cable lines from the photo voltaic panels to the inverter.

  • The inverter efficiency in 1988 was about 85 to 90%, in the 1990s, it increased to 90 to 92%, and currently attained 98%. The most demanding is string inverter with transformer-less one, because the transformers that operated at grid frequencies are bulky, expensive and incur losses. Furthermore, the transformers impose limitations in the control of grid current by the inverter. Especially at low load, the reactive power for the magnetisation of the transformer leads to a lower power factor. Hence, using transformer-less connection will improve the plant’s efficiency as losses are reduced.
  • The Vmax-in of the string inverters kept rising from 600V up to 900V in 2009, while in the year 2010 inverters with Vmax-input = 1000V allowing even bigger strings came into the market. So, higher the Vmax-in is, the less strings of more modules are used, so the losses are further reduced as less cables are being used.

The IGBTs and MOSFETs with high frequencies give improved power quality in compliance with the regulations of the utility grid. The high frequency used has led to the use of high frequency transformers with lower weight. Since, as frequency increases the size of equipment reduces. Hence, total weight of the inverters significantly (up to 20%) is less nowadays.

The present string inverters vary from 22 to 65 kg. The lower the weight is, the easier the installation and the lower the transportation costs are. String inverters are now available in the market with power ranging from 2 to 30 kWp. Until 2008, string inverters were not produced at more than the 5kWp. 1-Ø ones are used in PV stations of even 2MWp. However, a more recent technology is the development of the 3-Ø string inverters, at almost the same power range.

Development in PV sector

In the year 2010, the first 3-Ø inverters became available in the market providing easier design and electrical connections, as well as a completely symmetric power output, an important factor for the utility
grid operators.

  • The multi-string inverter is a development of the string inverter. A combination of strings are connected to separate DC/DC converters and then to a common DC/AC PV inverters. This is beneficial and advantageous in comparison to the central inverter – because each string can be controlled individually. This results in higher efficiency, flexibility and reliability of the plant.
  • Central inverters are used in larger scale applications, offering Operation and Maintenance (O&M) contracts for the plant owners. The operation availability of such inverters is warranted up to 99% throughout a complete year of operation. Until 2008 the power range of the central inverters was from 100kW but not more than 500kW.
  • The efficiency of central inverters has increased from 92% since the 1990s to 98.8% in the year 2010, hence providing high reliability and maximum operational life.
  • The recent trend is to use Central Station Inverters (CSI), which consist of the house, the transformer, the medium voltage switchgears, the monitoring system, and the cooling, heat sinks for inverter switches to minimise losses and the wiring channels that come on the installation preassembled, hence reduces all the required tasks and connections in less time. Such inverters are used mostly in PV parks higher than 2MWp, however lower size installations are also preferred.

Conclusions

With the present accelerated efforts on the part of manufacturers, designers & utilities with adequate government support, PV systems will occupy a place in country’s power sector in the next few decades. Grid-connected solar PV systems can provide some relief towards future energy demands.

Solar PV is the technology that offers a solution to a number of issues associated with fossil fuels. It is clean decentralised, indigenous and environmentally friendly. On top of that, India has among the highest solar irradiance in the globe which makes Solar PV more attractive for India.


Authors are from VIT University, Tamil Nadu.

Will PV systems occupy a place in country’s power sector in the next few decades? Yes or no? Comment your answer now!

6 Significant Considerations For Efficient Power Output From Any PV System

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  • Electrical India
  • Jul 25, 2016

6 Significant Considerations For Efficient Power Output From Any PV System

In the process of designing any solar PV system to achieve the best out of one’s efforts and investment, energy efficiency factors must be chiefly and cautiously taken into account. Following are six vital considerations for efficient power output from any PV system:

1. Cable Thickness: Usually in PV systems DC voltages are 12V or 24V or 48V. For the same wattage, much higher currents are drawn in the PV systems. This brings into picture resistance losses in the wiring. So, higher cross sectional areas of cables are taken into account.

2. Temperature: Solar cells do better in cold rather than in hot climate; and as things stand, panels are rated at 25°C that can be notably different from the real outdoor situation.

3. Shading: Idyllically, solar panels must be located in a way where, there will never be shadows on them as a shadow on even a smallest part of the panel can have a surprisingly large effect on the output.

4. Charge Controller: An innate attribute of solar silicon cells is that the current produced by a particular light level is virtually constant up to a certain voltage (about 0.5V for silicon) and then drops off unexpectedly. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) charge controller tries keeping the panel at its utmost voltage and concurrently produces the voltage necessary by the battery.

5. Inverter Efficiency: When the solar PV system is catering to the requirements of the AC loads, an inverter is needed. Although inverters come with wide ranging efficiencies, typically affordable solar inverters are between 80 to 90% efficient.

6. Battery Efficiency: Whenever backup is necessary, batteries are needed for charge storage. Lead acid batteries are most commonly used. All batteries discharge less than what go into them; the efficiency depends on the battery design and quality of construction of cell of batteries.


Source: Electrical India, July 2016, Article: Solar PV System in Educational Institute, authored by U P Pagrut and A S Sindekar…

Solar PV System In Educational Institute

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Solar PV System In Educational Institute

The major requirement of electrical power in educational institutes is at day time, as major work of teaching-learning is carried out at day time. That is the plus point for the use of solar energy. Hybrid systems such as Solar-Wind, Solar-Diesel and Solar-Biomass may also be beneficial setups depending on the geographical condition…


Urbanization and economic development are leading to a rapid rise in energy demand in urban areas in our country leading to enhanced Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. Many cities around the world are setting targets and introducing polices for promoting renewable energy and reducing GHG emissions. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India has taken initiatives to develop green campuses under ‘Development of Solar Cities’ programme which aims at minimum 10% reduction in projected demand of conventional energy at the end of five years. The forward step in this respect is to utilize the background of educational institutes for renewable energy utilization.

The major requirement of electrical power in educational institutes is at day time, as major work of teaching-learning is carried out at day time. That is the plus point for the use of solar energy. Hybrid systems such as Solar-Wind, Solar-Diesel, and Solar-Biomass may be also beneficial set up depending on the geographical condition. But the solar energy is the most commonly available source, and it’s economical with many factors. Factors may include easy erection, instant generation, easy repairs, tailor-made projects and tie grid projects etc.

Major power requirement in an educational institute is for lighting load. It includes lamps, fans, computers etc. There are power equipments in institutes such as air-conditioners, projectors, heaters etc. As in wiring system separate wiring path is provided for light and power circuit, it is easy to equip light circuit with solar power system.

At present there is limitation on solar energy production due to the space availability for solar panel erection. The shadow-free area required for installation of a rooftop solar PV system is about 12 m2 per kW (kilowatt).

Rooftop available is having its own limitation due to the load bearing capacity of roof. Fixing of panels to the normal direction of incident radiations i.e. placement of solar panels at proper tilt angle may be a major problem. The minimum clearance required for cleaning and servicing of the panels is 0.6 metre from the parapet wall and in between rows of panels. In between the rows of solar panels sufficient gap needs to be provided to avoid the shading of a row by an adjacent row. Placing the panels on ground, disturb the playgrounds, space for cultural activities and garden. So due this limitation of solar PV (Photovoltaic) generation, light circuits can be easily fed with solar power.

Components of Solar PV System

Below is shown a block diagram of basic PV system. It can be used directly for DC load with the help of charge controller. With the help of battery and inverter same system can be used for serving AC load.

AC SYSTEM

TYPICAL PV STAND-ALONE AC SYSTEM…

The key component of solar PV system is the solar panel. The cost of solar panels in entire solar PV system is near about 50% of entire system. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) charge controller is having major role for the increased efficiency of solar PV system output. Inverters are used to convert DC power into AC power. Industrial flexible cables are used as it is open to weather. It may be a armored or not depending on its use. Infrastructure for panel is another expenditure. Its erection is a typical task with reference to tilt angle facing to south-east or south-west. Below is given the general cost analysis (without battery) for 1kW system.

TABLE1

Factors Affecting PV Output

Energy efficiency factors must be carefully considered while designing any solar PV systems to get the best out of your efforts and investment. Following are six important considerations for efficient power output from PV system:

1. Cable Thickness: Normally in PV system DC voltages is 12V, 24V or 48V. For the same wattage much higher currents are involved in the PV systems. This brings into picture resistance losses in the wiring. So higher cross sectional area cables are used.

2. Temperature: Solar cells perform better in cold rather than in hot climate and as things stand, panels are rated at 25°C which can be significantly different from the real outdoor situation.

3. Shading: Ideally solar panels should be located such that there will never be shadows on them because a shadow on even a small part of the panel can have a surprisingly large effect on the output.

4. Charge Controller: An inherent characteristic of solar silicon cells is that the current produced by a particular light level is virtually constant up to a certain voltage (about 0.5V for silicon) and then drops off abruptly. MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) charge controller tries keeping the panel at its maximum voltage and simultaneously produces the voltage required by the battery.

5. Inverter Efficiency: When the solar PV system is catering to the needs of the AC loads, an inverter is needed. Although inverters come with wide ranging efficiencies, typically affordable solar inverters are 80 to 90% efficient.

6. Battery Efficiency: Whenever backup is required batteries are needed for charge storage. Lead acid batteries are most commonly used. All batteries discharge less than what go into them; the efficiency depends on the battery design and quality of construction of cell of batteries.

Case Study: For the study of output power from solar system, system erected by Shri Shivaji College, Akola (MS) is studied. The college is multi faculty discipline with arts, commerce and science. Solar system is off grid connected (PCU: Power Conditioning Unit) of 6kVA capacity. The system was commissioned on 20th Feb, 2016 in college. Solar power is given to two administrative offices and to two laboratories. Total connected load of offices is 2 kW and that of laboratories is 1.8 kW. Connected area lighting load operating at night is 500 Watt. Normal working of college is from 7.30am to 6.00pm. Preferences of operation of PCU for power supply is first solar, second grid and last battery. Load is adjusted up to the 75% capacity of inverter.

HOMER

Fig. 2: HOMER Model of Solar System…

PCU WITH BATTERY

Fig. 3: PCU with Battery in Control Room…

LCD DISPLAY

Fig. 4: LCD Display for Solar System Readings…

Solar Resource Inputs

Akola is a hot place in the state of Maharashtra. As compared to wind energy potential, solar energy is available in ample quantity, throughout the year. HOMER model for solar radiation and radiation incident on PV array in the D-map format is shown above (Fig. 2).

table2

chart

Fig. 5: Irradiance Graph of Akola City…

dmap

Fig. 6: D-Map of Irradiance Incident on PV Array in Akola City…

System Design

PCU (Power Conditioning Unit) is installed in the Power Control Room of College (Fig. 3). The panels are erected on 2nd floor at an angle of 50°C facing to south. Necessary connections of DC output from PV array are done to the input of PCU. The connection is brought by armored DC cable. Following are the components of solar PV system:

1. Solar Panel: It is two diode panel and product name is125Wp/12V/SN80. These are of 36 cell structure, connected in series. The entire panel is of 12 Volt, and 125 Watt capacity. For the system 5 strings of 8 series connected panels are used. It is the mandatory design factor as DC input to PCU (Power Conditioning Unit) is 96 Volt. Total numbers of panels used are 40 which is 5000 Wp (Refer opening image).

2. G.I. Support to Panels: Panels are arranged on 2nd floor of the college on GI frame structure at an angle of 50°C facing towards south. Sufficient clearance between the panels is kept for the air ventilation.

3. Cables & Wires: Single core Cu wire of 10 sq mm flexible, POLYCAB make is used for interconnection of solar panels. DC cable is used of 10 sq mm 2 core Cu Armored for the interconnection of panels output and PCU input. Industrial flexible wire POLYCAB make, of 2 core 10 sq mm is used for connection of protective switches.

4. Busbar Box: 2 Nos of busbar boxes are used, of 32 Amp rating having HRC fuse of 63 Amp rating.

5. HRC Fuse: For the circuit of array of panels, 32 Amp rating HRC fuses (5 Nos.) are used.

6. Earthing: Two earthing connections are provided KAPITRODE make, connected with 10 sq mm Cu multi strand wire.

7. Lightning Arrestor: One lightning arrestor is provided for protection from lightning.

8. DC MCB: Two DC MCB of 2 Pole, 250 Volt, (HAGER make) are connected in DC cable.

9. TPN Box: Two TPN boxes 4 way outlet of L&T make is used. It is having 4 Pole MCB of 40Amp (2 Nos.), 4 Pole MCB of 32Amp (3 Nos.) and 4 Pole Isolator of 63 Amp (1 No.) is provided.

10. PCU Unit: Power Conditioning Unit (PCU) of Su-Cam make, 6kVA capacity, rated for input supply of 96 DC Volt, is used as a converter.

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Total Expenditure:
Expenditure per item incurred for the solar PV system is given below.

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HOMER

Fig. 7: HOMER-Graphical Representation of Cash Flow Summary…

Total life of PV panel is assumed for 25 years and that of PCU is 15 years. Infrastructure and cables/wires are assumed for the life of 10 years. Battery life is for 3 years.

No fuel charges are required for PV power generation. But the charges are incurred to charge batteries at night and to supply grid current to charge batteries at day time, in case the photovoltaic power generation is not sufficient to charge the batteries. It is shown in cash flow diagram (Fig. 8).

HOMER CASH FLOW

Fig. 8: HOMER-Graphical Representation of Cash Flow…

Primary Load Inputs

Below is given the graphs from HOMER model for the day of year and for monthly average of AC primary load. (Refer Figure 9 and Figure 10).

HOMERDMAPLC

Fig. 9: HOMER- D-Map of Loading Condition…

HOMER

Fig. 10: HOMER-Graphical Representation of Monthly Average of AC Primary Load…

System Output

For the system output power three models are studied. First model is simulink model, which gives theoretical output of designed system.

Second model is HOMER model, which gives predicted output power and cost analysis.

Third model is actual reading from PCU.

A. MATLAB Application

6 kVA solar PV system is modeled to get I-V (Current-Voltage) and P-V (Power-Voltage) characteristics at temperature (T) 25°C and irradiance (G) 1000 w/m2. The maximum power (DC) output from the simulation is 6.443e+03 Watt.

CURRENT VOLTAGE

Fig. 11: Current- Voltage (I-V) &Power- Voltage (P-V) Characteristics…

TABLE

B. HOMER Application

HOMER is the micropower optimization model, which simplifies the task of evaluating designs of both off-grid and grid-connected power systems for a variety of applications. Basic constraints are introduced to get optimized result.

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C. PCU Readings

Actual loaded conditions are noted and readings for PV power output and output power of converter are taken. Tabulated chart for reading is given below.

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Conclusion

Based on the methods used for output power calculation, that means by MATLAB, HOMER and PCU readings and the results obtained thereon, some notable conclusions can be drawn, which have been stated below:

1. Computation of output power by MATLAB-simulation is theoretical. Practically change in temperature and irradiance influence the output power.
2. As HOMER software considers the various constraints for the computation of output power, it gives realistic output power reading. The calculations are very well matched to the actual power output readings given by PCU.
3. HOMER simulates the operation of a system by making energy balance calculations for each of the 8,760 hours in a year. It specify and estimates the cost of installing and operating the system over the lifetime of the project.
4. PCU readings (LCD display) give the actual energy utilized, PV current, PV voltage, output voltage, battery voltage and loading staus.
5. From PCU readings it is evident that output voltage is nearly constant. MPPT charge controller works for this stage.
6. Output power varies with load condition. It is linearly increasing with increase in loading condition.


AUTHOR CREDIT & PHOTOGRAPH

UMESH

Umesh P Pagrut
Department of Electrical Engineering
Govt. College of Engineering
Amravati

AS SINDEKAR

A S Sindekar
Associate Professor & Head
Department of Electrical Engineering
Govt. College of Engineering
Amravati

  • Electrical India
  • Aug 5, 2016